The Korean technology company shipped 93 million phones in the first quarter – 10 million more than Nokia in the same period – according to research firm Strategy Analytics.
Its range of Galaxy devices fuelled the surge, which saw Samsung selling around 9 million more smartphones in the first month of the year than Apple.
Samsung’s new Galaxy device, rumoured to be named the S3, is to be unveiled next week, which is likely to boost sales even further.
The company also credited its Galaxy Note tablet device for the rise.
Operating profit rose 98% year-on-year to 5.85 trillion Won (£2.76bn), while sales were up 22% to 45.27 trillion Won (£24.7bn).
Samsung’s telecoms business now makes up 73% of its operating profit as demand in the TV market and other digital appliances markets experienced a slowdown quarter on quarter.
The company is preparing a marketing push to promote its Smart TV range in a bid to increase TV sales in the second quarter.
Samsung is also hoping its sponsorship of the London 2012 Olympics will help boost brand awareness and preference in the coming months.
Robert Yi, Samsung’s senior vice president and head of investor relations, says: “We cautiously expect our earnings momentum to continue, going forward, as competitiveness in our major businesses is enhanced.”